Most of the case studies presented in this section are substantial studies looking into the details and depth of scaling up in a number of countries for instance Colombia, India, South Africa, Uganda and the USA.
Many find it hard to believe that the United States of America (US) would have much to contribute to discussions of scaling up water and sanitation globally. The US is arguably the richest nation in the world. The US is wealthy, but it also has the greatest disparateness between rich and poor people of industrialized nations. Indeed it has only been recently that low income rural areas have begun to narrow the gap in terms of water services.
This is the English translation of a Colombian case study on changing circumstances and needs for institutional support in community management of water supply services.
This case study shows how the SRPP was implemented in two districts in Andhra Pradesh, Khammam and Chittoor. It documents the situation on the ground, and identifies issues that need to be considered while scaling up.
One form of scaling up community management can be found in South Africa. The South African Water Services Act provides for Community Based Organisations (CBOs) to act as water service providers for municipalities. The Alfred Nzo municipality has extensive experience working with CBOs in its jurisdiction. Jean de la Harpe went to Alfred Nzo, spoke to councillors, community leaders, operators and consultants and wrote an extensive case study on both the good and bad aspects of CBOs acting as service providers. One conclusion reached is that legislation in South Africa limits the efficient and effective functioning of CBOs. Ms. De la Harpe thus proposes changes to the laws to enable more CBOs to operate as water service providers in rural areas in South Africa.
Processes of decentralization have led to the disappearance of national agencies focused on the development of water and sanitation programs in rural areas of Colombia. While decentralization has allowed community-based organisations (CBOs) to become more autonomous, it has also led to diminishing external assistance from local level government, which has failed to establish mechanisms to provide assistance and support to rural areas either due to lack of technical and financial resources, or due to the fact that financial resources are invested only in the urban areas of municipalities.
This case study is based on an integrated water and sanitation programme implemented by UNICEF in Ganjam, Orissa, situated on the coastal plain of the Bay of Bengal. Orissa is one of the poorest states in India, with the highest rates of infant and maternal mortality in the country, as well as the lowest rate of sanitation in the country. Less than 5% of the State's population has access to adequate sanitation, and even less use the facilities provided.
This case study from the community of Izingolweni in Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa, presents the example of a community-based organisation (CBO) acting as the Water Service Provider (WSP) with local government fulfilling the role of support services agent (SSA).
This case study from the village of Wittenbach, Switzerland, details the process of institutional development over the course of a century that has led to the establishment of a water supply service, which, to this day, remains largely managed at village level.