Papers from the East Africa Practioners’ workshop on pro-poor urban sanitation and hygiene
Each paper includes an abstract providing the reader with a clear idea on the context of the paper or photo presentation.
Background paper - Pro-poor sanitation and hygiene in East Africa: Turning challenges to opportunities
This paper provides a contextual background for the March 2011 East Africa Practitioners Workshop. The information presented is a synthesis of literature and our personal views. In East Africa, poverty remains one of the greatest challenges facing the people and their governments. From a water and sanitation perspective, commendable achievements for better health, water and sanitation have been realized. The public health situation in East Africa’s urban poor is greatly compromised because of inadequate sanitation and hygiene. The institutional framework for addressing urban sanitation and hygiene does not work for the poor. Sanitary conditions are particularly poor in East Africa’s slums, where a majority of residents resort to open spaces and pit latrines that are over-used and inadequately maintained. Conventional public finance in sanitation generally focuses on subsidies for household and public toilets and grants for urban sewerage and solid waste systems. Despite these challenges numerous opportunities can be discerned. These opportunities include advocacy, research, service delivery, and even programming interventions for civil society, the private sector, and the state(s). The other opportunities relate to pro-poor financing through loans or revolving funds managed through micro-finance institutions. Civil society could engage sanitation and hygiene for the urban poor and explore partnerships to support civil society participation in these crucial policy processes. While the discussion in this paper is not exhaustive or even fully representative of the current and complex sanitation and hygiene situation in urban East Africa, it shows glaring gaps for intervention. The paper will contribute to both discussions at the workshop and also provide a basis for further in-depth studies on policy, advocacy, and research on pro-poor sanitation and hygiene in urban East Africa.
10. Background paper, Pro-poor S&H in EA.pdf (828.0 kB)
The Kampala Integrated Environmental Planning and Management Project (KIEMP) is a 5-year bilateral multi-sector aid project for basic social services, funded by the Government of Belgium, the Government of Uganda and Kampala City Council (KCC). KIEMP is being jointly implemented since August 2006 by KCC and the Belgian development agency, BTC, in three parishes of Kampala. The general objective of KIEMP is to improve the quality of life of poor communities in the suburbs of Kampala. The specific objective is to enhance environmental planning and management in the poor suburbs of Kampala.
The construction of public toilets was one of several activities aiming at improved environmental conditions; this has been complemented by on the one hand social mobilisation (carried out by contracted local CBOs/NGOs) and on the other hand a behavioural change component. 35 public toilets were constructed after a participatory siting process. Vault toilets were adopted, as they have lower operation and maintenance costs and were found to be more appropriate for slums. Every public toilet facility has several gender-segregated stances (cubicles), including 4 toilet stances and 2 bathrooms, as well as a urinal; and a small communal tap. A caretaker approved by the community has been appointed to each toilet. The caretaker collects user fees which are used for the operation and maintenance of the toilet. Management structures have also been set up, both at parish and zonal level. They are meant to monitor the work of the caretaker to ensure proper operation and maintenance of the toilet.
Behavioural change focuses on changing perceptions, attitudes and practices with regard to the use, maintenance and management of local infrastructures, and on promoting individual, domestic and community hygiene practices for improved public health.
As Kigali city is growing fast, sanitation becomes a challenge and finding a public toilet facility often is a challenge. The Rwanda Environment Care (REC) Association was initiated by some graduates from Kigali Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), with the main objective to bring a sustainable and innovative solution to water and sanitation issues. REC came up with new ideas and innovations in water, sanitation and hygiene, including the introduction of ecological toilets in the year 2006. The new technology allows the recycling of human excreta into fertilizers. These eco-toilets provide a source of fertilizers for agriculture and gardens in Kigali and around.
The initiative started as a pilot project and has been implemented in collaboration with Kigali City council. It proved to be a solution in public places and car parking. Currently, REC is managing 4 public toilets in Kigali, employing full time caretakers for this purpose. The money from users is used by REC for daily operation and maintenance of facilities. With the profits made from the existing facilities, REC is planning to extend its activities to other locations visited by many people (markets, car parks, etc). Some public and private institutions, such as the Rwanda Revenue Authority, the Ministry of Immigration and Emigration, and the Rwanda Tea Society, already asked REC to build these eco toilets on their premises and in some instances to manage the new sanitation facilities.
The main aim of this paper is to spread the idea of using urinals in pro-poor urban settings, schools, camps and other congested areas to reduce the queuing time, reduce the need for latrines, to shorten the building time, reduce the cost for construction and reduce environmental pollution. The main target of the initiative is women and children in particular and the whole family in general. This is a concept also possible at household level. The other target groups are government organisations and NGOs who participate in training for trainers and then continue further to introduce urinals.
Based on his experience in various countries and projects, the author drew a number of lessons:
- The basic concept of male and female urinals can be used in many areas, also at household level;
- The concept is proper for all types of communal toilets;
- The use of urine, when applied under the top soil, is suitable especially for countries with low rain fall;
- In projects where human friendly technology and where well-managed interventions are introduced with monitoring, the results have been durable and sustainable.
3. Safer, faster, cheaper.pdf (644.2 kB)
Gitega is the second largest town in Burundi. Following on a study carried out in 2007-2009, a demand-oriented sanitation project has been launched in 2010 with the support of the German government. The project was initiated by Burundi’s municipal technical services (SETEMU) as a pilot project for area-wide sanitation improvements in secondary towns. Funded at a level of about 1 million Euros, the program is being implemented by the Municipality of Gitega, specifically the city’s new sanitation services with support of a consultant (Fichtner Water & Transportation) and GIZ.
The strategic criteria of the pilot project to trigger and sustain Gitega’s area wide urban hygienic and sanitary improvements encompass:
- A demand oriented approach to sanitation;
- An innovative pilot institutional arrangement, allocating the functions of regulation and supervision to a “national” entity (SETEMU) and the operational tasks to the local authorities;
- A sustainable financial concept that remains after the end of the project intervention based on affordable public services and technical solutions for households;
- The integration of all local stakeholders within their natural roles, i.e. what they do best or bring together the most appropriate and qualified for each task;
- The promotion of local technical innovations for affordable sanitary improvements;
- Management development of the responsible municipal sanitation service.
4. Improving area-wide urban sanitation.pdf (442.5 kB)
This paper focused on a study which covers the 3 municipalities that fall under the Dar Es Salaam City Council: Temeke, Ilala, Kinondoni. It contains a detailed analysis of Temeke municipality, where WaterAid has been active since 1997 and where additional data could be gathered. The case study focuses on the provision of sanitation services, as per the definition used in Tanzania, which includes, “the provision of appropriate facilities and services for the collection and disposal of human excreta and wastewaters” (Water Supply and Sanitation Act, 2009). The case study examines the effectiveness of public finance for sanitation services at household level only. This included facilities that were shared by a small number of families (e.g. neighbours) but excludes community facilities (i.e. shared by a large number of transient population in public spaces, such as markets or bus terminals) and school facilities. The study focuses on two key questions described in this paper, namely: In terms of comprehensiveness: are public funds allocated so that all segments of the sanitation value chain function effectively? And in terms of equity: are public funds targeted to reach the poor?
5. Financing sanitation in Dar es Salaam.pdf (681.5 kB)
The potential role of local monitoring in changing sanitation behaviour – a case study in Nhlamankulo Urban District, Maputo (Mozambique)
Maputo is Mozambique's largest urban centre and capital of the country. At least 33% of the population, live mostly in peri-urban areas, and rely on inadequate and, in many cases, shared, sanitation facilities – in some cases serving more than 30 families. The Urban District of Nhlamankulo contains some of the city’s most densely-populated (>200 persons/ha) unplanned areas, including the neighbourhoods where the specific case study was carried out (Chamanculo D, Aeroporto B and Unidade 7). In this pilot case study activity, WSP introduced a monitoring process in the three neighbourhoods, involving local community leaders, the lowest tier of the municipal administration, with the aim of collecting information to improve sanitation planning. However, instead of merely informing future interventions by the authorities, the training and monitoring carried out resulted in community leaders and householders becoming spontaneously involved in improving their own conditions. Within less than six months, the results were encouraging: in a sample of those having poor sanitation facilities at the beginning of the monitoring activity, 79% had built a new latrine, upgraded an existing one, or significantly improved the cleanliness of the latrine, halving the overall proportion of unsafe latrines from 29% to 14%. This outcome clearly suggests a potential role for community-based monitoring in changing sanitation behaviour and improving sanitation services in peri-urban areas. Description of the Initiative
6. Potential role of local monitoring.pdf (908.9 kB)
This paper provides a view of the current state of the sanitary system in urban Kigali and focuses on the practices and perceptions on the demand side. The study is based on 30 qualitative interviews in households and a school staff discussion. Information was also supplemented with 34 citywide interviews, for example from the Ministry of Infrastructure, Kigali City Council, local governments, local health centers, Plan International, and UNICEF amongst others. Currently, many households are not very concerned about their sanitation, although particularly high population density areas are under pressure with the lack of proper sanitation facilities. Cleanliness and health are important to the inhabitants, but the sanitation situation is alarming in some areas. This paper examines the social and technical drivers of change in Kigali’s sanitation.
7. Drivers of change Kigali sanitation.pdf (548.8 kB)
Effect of integrated social marketing on sanitation promotion in urban slum communities – case of three parishes in Kawempe division, Kampala (Uganda)
This paper presents experiences of work in nine zones from three parishes of Bwaise II (Bukarazi, Nakamiro and Tebuyoleka zones), Kyebando (Elisa, Kisalosalo and Kyebando central zones) and Mulago III (Lower Nsooba, Kifumbira I and Upper Nsooba zones) that form part of the 19 parishes that make up Kawempe division in Kampala. These parishes have large informal settlements (slums). The result of the paper reflects that community champions are necessary for the success of projects in urban slums. Sustainable sanitation and water Renewal Systems (SSWARS) continually work with resource persons in the communities for the success of the project. These includes: community leaders, elders, local council chair persons, and people with disabilities, village health team members and volunteers within the respective zones. These played a great role in community mobilization. Kawempe division authorities such as the division health inspector were greatly involved and invited in some sensitizations. In addition, the village health teams (VHT) that were already established in the community by Ministry of Health and SSWARS community volunteers have also been given training in use of participatory hygiene and sanitation transformation (PHAST) tools to equip them with knowledge since they are the ones mainly involved in health and sanitation programs in communities.
Sustainability of community water supply and sanitation largely depends on the extent the user community is committed to plan, implement and manage the facility. It is within this context that WaterAid and PEVODE jointly implemented a community-based and managed project that aimed at improving water and sanitation services to low income communities in Kingugi, a sub ward of about 7000 inhabitants of Mbagala ward, Temeke Municipality, Dar es Salaam Region, Tanzania. The project was needs driven and the request for sanitation came from the community itself.
The sanitation initiatives were linked to other community needs such as clean water, education, good environment, while income generation activities such as farming, small scale trading and other entrepreneurship, savings and credit schemes, etc. were promoted. Community capacity building, (community leadership training, fund management and other technical skills) was carried out by Water Aid and the Municipality through training workshops and onsite demonstration. The communities were also assisted to establish legal and organisational frameworks for the proposed projects (including Sanitation User Associations). There was a strong gender mainstreaming component that addressed women social and economic needs as much as possible. Major drivers of success include the communities’ willingness to pay for sanitation services and ownership of the pit latrines by the beneficiaries, the extent of the training component, the simple technologies used and the registration of the Sanitation User Association that complies with the by-laws of the municipality.